English Irregular Verbs

A verb is regular if both the past tense and past participle are formed by adding –ed or –d to the base form: brushed, typed. Irregular verb forms do not follow this pattern. It makes them more challenging since you must memorize them. Some irregular verbs have the same form for the past tense and the past participle: build, built, built. Others change for each principle part: choose, chose, chosen. And then there are those which stay the same for all three parts: let, let, let.

Here is a list of irregular verbs with their principle parts.

Irregular Verbs and Their Principle Parts

Base Form Past Tense Past Participle
arise arose arisen
awake awaked or awoke awaked or awoken
be was/were been
bear bore borne or born
beat beat beaten
become became become
begin began begun
bend bent bent
bet bet bet
bind bound bound
bite bit bitten
blow blew blown
break broke broken
bring brought brought
build built built
burn burned or burnt burned or burnt
burst burst burst
buy bought bought
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
cling clung clung
come came come
cost cost cost
cut cut cut
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
dive dived or dove dived
do did done
dream dreamed or dreamt dreamed or dreamt
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find bfound found
flee fled fled
fly flew flown
forbid forbade or forbad forbidden
forget forgot forgotten or forgot
freeze froze frozen
get got got or gotten
give gave given
go went gone
grow grew grown
hang (suspend) hung hung
hang (execute) hanged hanged
have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
know knew known
lay (put down) laid laid
lead led led
leave left left
lend lent lent
lie (down) lay lain
lie (say falsely) lied lied
let let let
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
pay paid paid
prove proved proved or proven
put put put
read read read
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
say said said
see saw seen
set set set
shake shook shaken
shine (glow) shone shone
shine (polish) shined shined
shoot shot shot
show showed shown or showed
shrink shrank shrunk
sing sang sung
sink sank or sunk sunk
sit sat sat
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid
speak spoke spoken
spend spent spent
spin spun spun
spring sprang or sprung sprung
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
sting stung stung
stink stank stunk
strike struck struck
strive strove striven
swear swore sworn
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
understand understood understood
wake woke or waked woken or waked or woke
wear wore worn
win won won
wind wound wound
wring wrung wrung
write wrote written

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